COLOR SPECIFICATION SYSTEMS
The printing industry uses various color matching systems to take the
guesswork out of mixing ink. The best known of these, the Pantone
Matching System (PMS), is a numbered index of thousands of colors along
with instructions for mixing them from a smaller number of basic inks.
The Pantone Matching System is supported by all of the leading ink
manufacturers, who have agreed to formulate their inks to conform to
Pantone's color matching and mixing specifications. Similar matching
systems are TruMatch, Focoltone, and Toyo.
Various kinds of protective and appearance-enhancing coatings can be
applied to the paper during the print run by a dedicated unit of the
press. Coatings overprint the ink. "Flood" coating covers the entire
surface of the sheet. "Spot" coating is applied to selected portions of
the image. Printers use both gloss and matte coatings to achieve
various visual contrasts between ink and paper or image and background.
Coatings also protect the surface of the ink from scuffing, ruboff,
fingerprints, and other damage. Lacquers, liquid plastics, and film
laminates give even more protection.